Home Lifestyle Rishi Kapoor dies at 67: What is Leukemia: Symptoms and Diagnosis

Rishi Kapoor dies at 67: What is Leukemia: Symptoms and Diagnosis

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Rishi Kapoor dies at 67: What is Leukemia: Symptoms and Diagnosis

Rishi Kapoor dies at 67: What is Leukemia: Symptoms and Diagnosis

What is Leukemia

Let’s first understand what leukemia is: leukemia is a cancer of the body’s blood or bone marrow, which includes the bone marrow and lymphatic system. There are several types of leukemia, some even affect children, however, most leukemia occurs in adults.

Bone marrow produces blood cells. Leukemia can develop due to problems with the production of blood cells. It usually affects white blood cells or white blood cells.

In an unfortunate development, actor Rishi Kapoor loses his long battle against leukemia. We all know that the actor traveled to the US to do his treatment early.

Leukemia is most likely to affect people over 55 years of age, but it is also the most common cancer in people under 15 years of age.

The National Cancer Institute estimates that 61,780 people will be diagnosed with leukemia in 2019. They also predicted that leukemia would kill 22,840 people in the same year.

Acute leukemia develops rapidly and rapidly deteriorates, but chronic leukemia worsens with time. There are several different types of leukemia, the best way to treat and the chances of survival of a person depends on the type they have.

In this article, we will give an overview of leukemia, causes, treatments, types and symptoms : What Is Leukemia

Leukemia develops when the DNA of blood cells, mainly white blood cells, causing damage. This causes blood cells to grow and split out of control.

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Healthy blood cells die and new cells replace them. These develop in the bone marrow.

Abnormal blood cells do not die at natural points in their life cycle. Instead, they build and take up more space.

As the bone marrow produces more cancer cells, the blood begins to overpopulate, preventing healthy white blood cells from growing and working properly.

Eventually, cancer cells outnumber healthy cells in the blood.

Symptoms_of_leukemia

Risk factors

Leukemia has a range of risk factors. Some of these risk factors have a more pronounced link to leukemia than others:

Artificial ionizing radiation: This may include having undergone radiation therapy for previous cancers, although this is a more important risk factor for some types than for others.

Certain viruses: Human T-lymphocyte virus (htlv-1) has links with leukemia.

Chemotherapy: Patients who received chemotherapy for previous cancer treatments were more likely to develop leukemia later in life.

Exposure to benzene: This is the solvent used by manufacturers in some cleaning chemicals and hair dyes.

Some genetic conditions: Children with Down syndrome have a third copy of chromosome 21. This increases your risk of acute bone marrow or acute lymphoblastic leukemia by 2— 3%, which is higher than children without this syndrome.

Another genetic condition linked to leukemia is Li-Fraumeni syndrome. This led to changes in the TP53 gene.

Family history: Siblings with leukemia may cause a low but significant risk of leukemia. If a person has identical twins with leukemia, they have a chance of one in five of having cancer.

Problems with the inheritance of the immune system: Certain inherited immune conditions increase the risk of serious infections and leukemia. These include:

  • Hyperocentric enlarged capillary
  • Bloom Syndrome
  • Schwarchman Diamond Syndrome
  • Wiscot-Ai Syndrome

Immunosuppression: Childhood leukemia may develop as a result of intentional suppression of the immune system. This may have happened after an organ transplant, as children take medications to prevent their bodies from rejecting organs.

Several risk factors require a more detailed study to confirm their relationship with leukemia, for example,

  • Exposure to electromagnetic fields
  • Exposure to certain chemicals such as gasoline, diesel and pesticides in the workplace
  • Smoking
  • Use hair dye

Type of leukemia

There are four main categories of leukemia:

  1. Acute
  2. Chronic
  3. Lymphocytes
  4. Origin of the marrow

Chronic and acute leukemia

During their shelf life, leukocytes pass through several stages.

In acute leukemia, cells multiply rapidly and accumulate in the bone marrow and blood. They leave the marrow prematurely and do not work.

Chronic leukemia progresses more slowly. It allows the production of more mature and useful cells.

Acute leukemia cluttering healthy blood cells faster than chronic leukemia.

Lymphocytes and myeloid leukemia

Doctors classify leukemia according to the type of blood cells they affect.

If cancer changes affect the type of bone marrow that produces lymphocytes, lymphocytic leukemia occurs. Lymphocytes are white blood cells that work in the immune system.

Myeloid leukemia occurs when changes affect bone marrow cells that produce blood cells, rather than the blood cells themselves.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia

Children under 5 years of age have the highest (all) risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, it can also affect adults, usually those over 50 years of age.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

This is more common in adults over 55 years of age, but younger adults can also develop it. About 25% of adults with leukemia have chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL).

Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is more common in adults than in children, but it is generally a rare cancer. It develops more often in men than in women.

It develops rapidly and symptoms include fever, shortness of breath, and joint pain. Environmental factors can trigger this type.

Chronic bone marrow leukemia

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (cml) occurs mainly in adults. About 15% of all patients with leukemia in the US are cml.

Therapy

Treatment options will depend on a person’s type of leukemia, age, and overall health.

The main treatment for leukemia is chemotherapy. The cancer treatment team will adapt to the type of leukemia.

If treatment begins earlier, the chances of a person getting comfort are higher.

Types of treatment include:

Note to wait: Doctors may not actively treat slow-growing leukemia, such as chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL).

Chemotherapy: Intravenous (iv) by a doctor who uses a drip or needle to administer the medication. They attack and kill cancer cells. However, they can also damage non-cancerous cells and cause serious side effects, such as hair loss, weight loss, and nausea.

Chemo is the primary treatment for amps. Sometimes doctors may recommend a bone marrow transplant.

Targeted therapy: This type of treatment uses tyrosine kinase inhibitors that target cancer cells without affecting others, reducing the risk of side effects. Examples of this are imatinib, dasatinib and niratinib.

Many patients with cml have genetic mutations that respond to imatinib. One study found that the 5-year survival rate for people treated with imatinib was around 90%.

Interferon therapy: This slows down and eventually stops the development and spread of leukemia cells. The drug acts in a similar way to substances produced naturally by the immune system.

Radiation therapy: In people with certain types of leukemia, like everyone else, doctors recommend radiation therapy to destroy bone marrow tissue before transplantation.

Surgery: Surgery usually involves removing a spleen, but that depends on the type of leukemia a person has.

Stem cell transplantation: In the process, the cancer care team destroys the existing bone marrow with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both. They then injected new stem cells into the bone marrow to form non-cancer blood cells.

This process can effectively treat cml. Younger leukemia patients are more likely to receive a successful transplant than the elderly.

Symptoms

Symptoms of leukemia include the following:

Poor blood clotting: This can cause people to easily grate or bleed and heal slowly. You may also experience bruising spots, which are small red and purple spots on the body. This suggests that the blood is not condensing properly.

The stool develops when immature white blood cells are squeezed out of platelets, which is essential for blood clotting.

Common infections: White blood cells are essential to fight infections. Frequent infections can occur in a person if white blood cells do not work properly. The immune system can attack the body’s own cells.

Interferon therapy: This slows down and eventually stops the development and spread of leukemia cells. The drug acts in a similar way to substances produced naturally by the immune system.

Radiation therapy: In people with certain types of leukemia, like everyone else, doctors recommend radiation therapy to destroy bone marrow tissue before transplantation.

Surgery: Surgery usually involves removing a spleen, but that depends on the type of leukemia a person has.

Stem cell transplantation: In the process, the cancer care team destroys the existing bone marrow with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both. They then injected new stem cells into the bone marrow to form non-cancer blood cells.

This process can effectively treat cml. Younger leukemia patients are more likely to receive a successful transplant than the elderly.

Symptoms

Symptoms of leukemia include the following:

Poor blood clotting: This can cause people to easily grate or bleed and heal slowly. You may also experience bruising spots, which are small red and purple spots on the body. This suggests that the blood is not condensing properly.

The stool develops when immature white blood cells are squeezed out of platelets, which is essential for blood clotting.

Common infections: White blood cells are essential to fight infections. Frequent infections can occur in a person if white blood cells do not work properly. The immune system can attack the body’s own cells.

Anemia: As effective red blood cells become less and less, a person may become anemic. That means they don’t have enough hemoglobin.

Other symptoms may include:

  • Disgusting
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Night Sweat
  • Flu like symptoms
  • Weight Loss
  • Bone pain
  • Exhausted

If the liver or spleen is swollen, a person can feel full and eat less, which leads to weight loss.

Weight loss can occur even without an enlarged liver or spleen. Headaches may indicate that cancer cells have entered the central nervous system (CNS).

However, all these can be symptoms of other diseases. Advice and testing are necessary to confirm a diagnosis of leukemia.

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