Indian scientists have developed an advanced alloy for the production of Nd-Fe-B magnets. These rare earth magnets are highly sought after for use in electric vehicles. Dysprosium (Di) is a metal that is used to make magnets that are highly magnetizable.
- Scientists in India have created an advanced alloy for producing extremely high-value Nd-Fe-B magnets, which are in high demand for electric vehicles and can improve their appeal.
- 90% of electric vehicles employ motors powered by highly magnetized Neodymium-Fe-B (Nd-Fe-B) magnets.
- The Nd-Fe-B magnet, used as a permanent magnet in EV batteries, can withstand temperatures up to 200oC. They must withstand the effects of an external magnetic field, which only a few rare earth magnets can.
- Researchers worldwide are working on increasing the resistance of Nd-Fe-B magnets to demagnetization by allowing them to have high grain boundaries and accept non-magnetics during heat treatment (GBD).
- International Advanced Research Institute scientists
Scientists in India have developed an advanced alloy for producing extremely high-value Nd-Fe-B magnets that are in high demand for electric vehicles and can make them more attractive.
90% of electric vehicles use motors driven by highly magnetized Neodymium-Fe-B (Nd-Fe-B) magnets. Nd-Fe-B magnets have been widely used in many applications due to the extraordinary combination of magnetism it possesses.
Nd-Fe-B magnet, used as a permanent magnet in EV batteries, operates at extremely high temperatures of up to 200oC. They need to resist the external magnetic fields’ effects, which only a few rare earth magnets can do. Dysprosium (Di) is a metal used to produce magnets that are highly resistive to magnetization. Researchers worldwide are devising ways to increase the resistance of Nd-Fe-B magnets to demagnetization by enabling them to have high grain boundaries and accept non-magnetics during heat treatment (GBD).
Scientists at the International Advanced Research Centre of Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI), a department of the Ministry of Science and Technology of India, have created an artificial material that can be used as a coating for a variety of electric vehicles. Scientists from the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of China, have reported that using an alloy containing low melting points of Nd70Cu30, they were able to enhance the coercive power of the Nd-Fe-B ribbons. This is due to the formation of Nb by precipitating iron (Nb) in Nd-Fe-B powders; this enables the addition of copper to the grain boundaries, and as a result, the resistance to demagnetization of Nd-Fe-B powders Coercivity values of over 1T in a typical NdFeB magnet at 150o C, which is critical for automobile applications, are useful to try and develop magnets that do not contain any Dy for EV applications.
ARCI is undertaking a major project to manufacture near-net-shaped Nd-Fe-B magnets. The project is being supported by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), and the above strategy will be used for the magnets that will be made in the plant.
The plan could be used in India to produce Nd-Fe-B magnets for major applications in the automobile industry.
Brief of Research Paper (Enhancing the coercivity of Nd-Cu-diffused Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets byNb-assisted grain boundary pinning)
In this paper, the researcher describes the results of a pilot plant for manufacturing near net-shaped Nd-Fe-B magnets through a major project funded by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) in line with the Atmanirbhar Bharat mission of the Government of India and the above strategy will be explored for the magnets manufactured in the pilot plant. Hence Dysprosium (Dy) metal is added as an alloy to improve the resistance to demagnetization. The coercivity value of 1 T at 150oC critical for automotive applications achieved in this research published in Materials Research Letter could be a useful strategy to develop magnets without Dy for EV applications.
Nd-Fe-B melt-spun ribbons were prepared by GDBP using Nd70Cu30 low melting eutectic alloy. Magnetic measurements, exchange interaction studies, and microstructural investigations were performed to elucidate the role of Nb and, correspondingly, the mechanism for the observed coercivity enhancement. The as-received (as-read) and grain boundary diffused (GBDP) sample (20 wt.%) of Nd and Cu in the GBs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and atom-probe tomography (3D-APT). The GB-decorated samples were found to be more sensitive to the applied magnetic field in isolation than the non-GB-decorated ones. The initial magnetization curve of the samples, along with the inset showing the derivative identifying the kinks due to the pinning of domain walls, respectively, showing the reduction in exchange in interaction and effective domain wall pinned and due to grain boundary in GBDP sample.