A new molecule called PK2 can be used to treat both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, and it can also be used for other things. The molecules cause the pancreas to release insulin, which can be given to people by mouth.
It also stops the loss of beta cells, and it has been tested on mice, so we know that it works. The findings could one day lead to cheap oral drugs for diabetics. PK2 was quickly absorbed by the intestines, making it safe to give it to people by mouth. Mice given PK2 had six-fold more insulin in their blood than mice in a control group who did not get the drug.
- PK2 restores beta-cell loss as well as insulin release.
- The Indian Institute of Technology Mandi has discovered PK2, a novel chemical that can treat Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
- Oral administration of the molecules induces insulin release from the pancreas.
- The chemical reached the pancreas, liver, and kidneys in mice within two minutes, but not the heart, lungs, or spleen.
- Because it’s present in the brain, it may be able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier.
The new molecule can be used to treat both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
The drug can be taken by mouth and quickly gets into the body through the digestive system. PK2 also causes insulin to be released, but it also stops the loss of beta cells. On mice, the molecule has been tried out.
A new molecule called PK2 has been found by scientists at the Indian Institute of Technology in Mandi. This molecule can be used to treat both Type 1 and Type 2. The molecules make the pancreas release insulin, and they can be taken by mouth. Diabetes is caused by not enough insulin being released from the beta cells of the pancreas in response to blood glucose levels. There are a lot of complicated biochemical processes that happen before insulin comes out. One of these processes is called GLP1R, a type of protein found in cells. After a meal, a hormone called GLP1 binds to the GLP1R, which causes insulin to be released. This causes the body to store more of the hormone.
Injectable drugs for diabetes, such as exenatide and liraglutide, are expensive and unstable after they’re used, says Prosenjit Mondal, a doctor in the field. We want to find drugs that are easier to make, more stable, cheaper, and more effective against Type 1 and Type 2. They look like GLP1 and bind to GLP1R, which causes insulin to be released. Drugs used to treat diabetes like exenatide and liraglutide do this, too. The researchers used computer simulations to look for molecules that might be able to bind to GLP1R. They found some molecules that can bind with GLP1R. Because PK2 was easier to dissolve in solvents, they chose it because it was more likely to bind to GLP1R. PK2 was then made in the lab for more study.
First, Khyati Girdhar says, “We tried to determine how well PK2 binds to GLP1R proteins in human cells. We found that it did well.” This shows that PK2 may be able to make the beta cells release insulin. PK2 was quickly absorbed by the intestines, making it easier to give it to people by mouth instead of giving them a shot. At two-minute intervals after being given to mice, the molecule spread to their pancreas, liver and kidneys. It didn’t spread to their heart, lung, or spleen. If a small amount is found in your brain, it could mean that the molecule can get through the blood-brain barrier. When PK2 was given to the mice, their insulin levels rose six times as much as the control group. Within 10 hours, the molecule was out of the body.
Mondal says that PK2 could also stop or reverse the loss of beta cells, which are important for insulin production, making it useful for both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. One day, the findings could lead to cheap oral drugs for people with diabetes.
Diabetes is a drug that helps with the biology of diabetes. Scientists study the world around them. Due to the coral-algae symbiosis, coral reefs can bounce back from bleaching events. A symbiotic relationship can be formed with coral even if algae don’t use sunlight for photosynthesis. UC Riverside has given us this picture. As the planet warms and the oceans get more acidic, corals are dying off.